Posts in Medical Education
My ‘Top 4 List’ from AMEE 2019

The Association of Medical Educators in Europe (AMEE) held their annual conference in August 2019 in Vienna, Austria. AMEE is among the largest annual medical education conferences in the world and this was my first time attending the meeting. Here are 4 topics that I enjoyed most from AMEE 2019.

St. Charles Church, Vienna, Austria - Photo by M. Gisondi.

St. Charles Church, Vienna, Austria - Photo by M. Gisondi.

The AMEE conference has been on my medical education bucket list for many years. AMEE brings together health professions educators, scholars, researchers, and graduate students from around the world. The meeting has a little something for everyone, whether you publish education research regularly or are new to the field. I left inspired, with several ideas for new projects and collaborations.

Here are the top 4 topics that I enjoyed most from the meeting:

Learning Analytics. Big Data is transforming ‘assessment for learning’ in the health professions. If smartly designed, we can automate the collection of numerous and meaningful data points from our evaluation systems and electronic health records. The goal? Accurate learner assessment that should lead to truly individualized learning plans for our students. To explore the potential of learning analytics, start by reading the work of Erik Duval, the Journal of Learning Analytics, and the Learning Analytics Manifesto.

Patient Engagement in Teaching and Learning. A major theme from the AMEE 2019 meeting was patient engagement in health professions education. What role can patients play in bringing medical content to life for the learner? Does the shared experience of a patient serve to better contextualize illness and cement learning in the mind of the trainee? A wonderful and moving plenary was presented on this topic by Sue Sheridan, the Director of Patient Engagement for the Society to Improve Diagnosis in Medicine. I encourage you to view the documentary, To Err is Human, which features Sue and her family in a discussion about patient engagement in the prevention of medical errors.

Threshold Concepts. I first learned the term ‘threshold concept’ in a faculty development program at Northwestern University in 2006 — and I was able to revisit the topic through several presentations at AMEE 2019. Simply, threshold concepts are core concepts. A learner must fully understand a threshold concept before they can move on to more complex and advanced material. I explained this to my daughter while in Vienna by saying, “you couldn’t learn long division until you learned how to add and subtract”. In emergency medicine, I often teach the threshold concept that syncope is a cardiovascular process, not a primary brain illness; novice learners often suggest brain imaging when they encounter their first syncope patient. A Private Universe is a wonderful tool for better understanding how threshold concepts affect learning, produced by the Annenberg Foundation.

The Joy of Collaboration. I attended AMEE with three of my research collaborators, who over the years have become close personal friends. The meeting provided a venue to present two of our recent publications - but more importantly - traveling to this conference together was a chance to reflect on the importance of our personal and professional relationships with one another. Below is a link to one of the research papers we presented, “Learning to Learn”, published recently in AMEE’s journal, Medical Teacher.

September 1, 2019

Co-Authors of Original Article: Linda Regan, MD, MEd – Johns Hopkins Medical Institutes, Laura R. Hopson, MD - University of Michigan, and Jeremy Branzetti, MD - New York University.

Niches, Itches, and Medical Education

Stop for a moment and define the word, ‘niche’.

[ pause… ]

Do you have a niche? How did your niche become your niche? Was it always part of your DNA? Did a mentor inspire your niche? And why does it matter if you have a niche at all?

Image from Upsplash.com

The Oxford Learners’ Dictionary defines ‘niche’ as, “a comfortable or suitable role, job, [or] way of life”. I favor this definition of niche because of the inclusion of the word, ‘comfortable’. One might be well-suited or well-trained to perform a specific job, but that doesn’t necessarily mean they enjoy their work or are comfortable in their role. Comfort implies happiness, authenticity, and -- potentially -- joy.

Medical educators encourage trainees and junior faculty members to identify professional niches that they can develop over time. The argument is simple: working in domains related to your clinical role adds variety to your day-to-day schedule. Variety is the spice of life, and in medicine, a variety of tasks may reduce professional burnout. 

Expertise in domains such as patient safety, research, administration, medical education, and quality improvement are all examples of professional niches that physicians pursue within medicine. Medical schools deliberately design longitudinal curricula that provide students with experiences in such domains. Both Stanford School of Medicine and Northwestern Feinberg School of Medicine offer ‘concentrations’ aimed at niche development.

Residency programs offer similar longitudinal curricula, however the outcomes of these programs take many years to study. Northwestern Emergency Medicine launched ‘The Academic Colleges’ program in 2006, with a focus on just three career paths: Research, Administration, and Education. Program evaluation of their Education College occurred after 10 years of ‘graduates’, through interviews with program alumni, faculty members, and current residents. Expertise in four areas of medical education were identified as key outcomes of the program: educator skills and learning theory, education research methodology, educational program administrative, and collaboration. Read more about this program evaluation published in AEM Education & Training in 2017.

If you are an educator who directs a similar ‘scholarly tracks’ program, consider how you might conduct an evaluation of your curriculum and identify meaningful, longitudinal, learning outcomes. Here are some program evaluation resources from BMJ 2003 and Medical Teacher 2012 (AMEE Guide No. 67) to get you started.

As for itches… Merriam Webster describes the relatively recent trend from NICH to NEESH. I’m sticking with niches and itches -- seems classic.

August 11, 2019

Co-Authors of Original Article: Benjamin Schnapp, MD, MEd – University of Wisconsin and Abra Fant, MD, MS - Northwestern University.

Let's Go Back to the Bedside

There is clinical teaching… and then there’s bedside teaching. Some of our very best clinical teachers rarely go to the bedside with their learners, a trend that has worsened over the past two decades. Why? And how do we get our clinical teams back to the bedside?

Image from upsplash.com

Image from upsplash.com

Sir William Osler said it best, ‘‘Take [the student] from the lecture room, take him [her] from the amphitheater. Put him [her] in the outpatient department, put him [her] in the wards. No teaching without a patient for a text, and the best is that taught by the patient himself [herself].” 

Osler’s call was to bring students from the classroom or the laboratory to the bedside -- to perfect their physical examination skills, to observe the professional behaviors of their mentors, and to be observed performing patient care by their preceptors. Today, the challenge isn’t to get students out of the classroom, but rather away from the electronic medical record. Our learners are charting, billing, and physician-order-entering all day long… often on workstations on wheels, in hospital hallways, just yards away from their patients. 

These same patients desperately want time with their physicians. And they trust us less and less, as a profession, because they don’t see us hard at work taking care of them — in the hallway.

What changed?

The answer is likely multifactorial, with some obvious causes. Our hospitals are overcrowded. Clinical performance metrics push us to work faster, with a paradox of less time spent in direct patient care. Documentation is a time-intensive and complex task, a response to litigation risks and billing rules. Supervising physicians are pulled in many directions, but rarely in the direction of the bedside. 

And what’s worse? Trainees who are taught in hallways teach in hallways. Our profession is forgetting the bedside teaching skills that Osler so passionately endorsed.

There are expert medical educators among us who are trying to retrain faculty members to teach at the bedside. Two Stanford courses are noteworthy for those interested in becoming better bedside teachers: Stanford25 Skills Symposium: Promoting the Culture of Bedside Medicine and the Stanford Faculty Development Center Clinical Teaching Program. Similar training (or, retraining) courses are popping up around the country, should you be unable to make your way to Palo Alto to participate in one of these fantastic programs. I also refer you to the Society for Bedside Medicine if you want to learn more about this topic and opportunities for skill development.

In 2006, Amer Aldeen and I published Bedside Teaching in Emergency Medicine in Academic Emergency Medicine. This article reviews the critical importance of bedside teaching to medical education, the historical decline of this professional skill, and strategies to overcome the above listed challenges.

Check out the Stanford bedside teaching courses, the Society for Bedside Medicine, our article in AEM… and let’s go back to the bedside with our trainees.

July 26, 2019

Co-Author of original article: Amer Aldeen, MD – US Acute Care Solutions.